IMDB Review Sentiment Classification using RNN LSTM

Published by georgiannacambel on

Sentiment Classification in Python

In this notebook we are going to implement a LSTM model to perform classification of reviews. We are going to perform binary classification i.e. we will classify the reviews as positive or negative according to the sentiment.

Recurrent Neural Network

  • Neural Networks are set of algorithms which closely resembles the human brain and are designed to recognize patterns.
  • Recurrent Neural Network is a generalization of feedforward neural network that has an internal memory.
  • RNN is recurrent in nature as it performs the same function for every input of data while the output of the current input depends on the past one computation.
  • After producing the output, it is copied and sent back into the recurrent network. For making a decision, it considers the current input and the output that it has learned from the previous input.
  • In other neural networks, all the inputs are independent of each other. But in RNN, all the inputs are related to each other.

Long Short Term Memory

  • Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks are a modified version of recurrent neural networks, which makes it easier to remember past data in memory.
  • Generally LSTM is composed of a cell (the memory part of the LSTM unit) and three "regulators", usually called gates, of the flow of information inside the LSTM unit: an input gate, an output gate and a forget gate.
  • Intuitively, the cell is responsible for keeping track of the dependencies between the elements in the input sequence.
  • The input gate controls the extent to which a new value flows into the cell, the forget gate controls the extent to which a value remains in the cell and the output gate controls the extent to which the value in the cell is used to compute the output activation of the LSTM unit.
  • The activation function of the LSTM gates is often the logistic sigmoid function.
  • There are connections into and out of the LSTM gates, a few of which are recurrent. The weights of these connections, which need to be learned during training, determine how the gates operate.


The IMDB dataset contains 50,000 movie reviews for natural language processing or Text analytics. It has two columns-review and sentiment. The review contains the actual review and the sentiment tells us whether the review is positive or negative. You can find the dataset here IMDB Dataset

Instead of downloading the dataset we will be directly using the IMDB dataset provided by keras.This is a dataset of 25,000 movies reviews for training and testing each from IMDB, labeled by sentiment (positive/negative). Reviews have been preprocessed, and each review is encoded as a list of word indexes (integers). For convenience, words are indexed by overall frequency in the dataset, so that for instance the integer "3" encodes the 3rd most frequent word in the data.

This will install a new version of tensorflow

!pip install tensorflow-gpu

Word to Vector

Computers do not understand human language. They require numbers to perform any sort of job. Hence in NLP, all the data has to be converted to numerical form before processing.

  • As given in the diagram the sentence is first split into words.
  • Then a vocabluary is created of the words in the entire data set.
  • Then the words are encoded using a sparse matrix.
  • Sparse matrix is a matrix in which most of the elements are 0.
  • In this notebook we are going to use a dense matrix.
  • It is a matrix where majority of the elements are non-zero.
  • The IMDB dataset from Keras is already encoded using a dense matrix.
alt text

The necessary python libraries are imported here-

  • numpy is used to perform basic array operations
  • pyplot from matplotlib is used to visualize the results
  • Tensorflow is used to build the neural network
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import tensorflow as tf

from tensorflow.keras.datasets import imdb
from tensorflow.keras.preprocessing.sequence import pad_sequences

This is used to check the tensorflow version


Dataset preprocessing

imdb.load_data() returns a Tuple of Numpy arrays for training and testing: (x_train, y_train)(x_test, y_test)
x_trainx_test: lists of sequences, which are lists of indexes (integers)
y_trainy_test: lists of integer labels (1 or 0)

We have set num_words to 20000. Hence only 20000 most frequent words are kept. The maximum possible index value is num_words - 1

(X_train, y_train), (X_test, y_test) = imdb.load_data(num_words = 20000)

Here we can see that X_train is an array of lists where each list represents a review. We can see that the lengths of each review is different.

array([1415,   33,    6,   22,   12])

The length of all the reviews must be same before feeding them to the neural network. Hence we are using pad_sequences which pads zeros to reviews with length less than 100.

X_train = pad_sequences(X_train, maxlen = 100)
X_test = pad_sequences(X_test, maxlen=100)

We can see that X_train has 25000 rows and 100 columns i.e. it has 25000 reviews each with length 200

(25000, 100)
vocab_size = 20000
embed_size = 128

Build LSTM Network

Here we are importing the necessary layers to build out neural network

from tensorflow.keras import Sequential
from tensorflow.keras.layers import LSTM, Dropout, Dense, Embedding

Our sequential model consists of 3 layers.

Embedding layer:

The Embedding layer is initialized with random weights and will learn an embedding for all of the words in the training dataset. It requires 3 arguments:

  • input_dim: This is the size of the vocabulary in the text data which is 20000 in this case.
  • output_dim: This is the size of the vector space in which words will be embedded. It defines the size of the output vectors from this layer for each word.
  • input_shape: This is the shape of the input which we have to pass as a parameter to the first layer of our neural network.

LSTM layer:

This is the main layer of the model. It learns long-term dependencies between time steps in time series and sequence data.

Dense layer:

Dense layer is the regular deeply connected neural network layer. It is most common and frequently used layer. We have number of units as 1 because the output of this classification is binary which can be represented using either 0 or 1. Sigmoid function is used because it exists between (0 to 1) and this facilitates us to predict a binary output.

model = Sequential()
model.add(Embedding(vocab_size, embed_size, input_shape = (X_train.shape[1],)))
model.add(LSTM(units=60, activation='tanh'))

model.add(Dense(units=1, activation='sigmoid'))

model.compile(optimizer='adam', loss='binary_crossentropy', metrics = ['accuracy'])
Model: "sequential"
Layer (type)                 Output Shape              Param #   
embedding (Embedding)        (None, 100, 128)          2560000   
lstm (LSTM)                  (None, 60)                45360     
dense (Dense)                (None, 1)                 61        
Total params: 2,605,421
Trainable params: 2,605,421
Non-trainable params: 0
  • After compiling the model we will now train the model using on the training dataset.
  • We will use 5 epochs to train the model. An epoch is an iteration over the entire x and y data provided.
  • batch_size is the number of samples per gradient update i.e. the weights will be updates after 128 training examples.
  • validation_data is the data on which to evaluate the loss and any model metrics at the end of each epoch. The model will not be trained on this data.
history =, y_train, epochs=5, batch_size=128, validation_data=(X_test, y_test))
Train on 25000 samples, validate on 25000 samples
Epoch 1/5
25000/25000 [==============================] - 43s 2ms/sample - loss: 0.4326 - accuracy: 0.7903 - val_loss: 0.3410 - val_accuracy: 0.8513
Epoch 2/5
25000/25000 [==============================] - 37s 1ms/sample - loss: 0.2292 - accuracy: 0.9112 - val_loss: 0.3454 - val_accuracy: 0.8488
Epoch 3/5
25000/25000 [==============================] - 37s 1ms/sample - loss: 0.1437 - accuracy: 0.9505 - val_loss: 0.5632 - val_accuracy: 0.8254
Epoch 4/5
25000/25000 [==============================] - 37s 1ms/sample - loss: 0.0918 - accuracy: 0.9680 - val_loss: 0.5268 - val_accuracy: 0.8315
Epoch 5/5
25000/25000 [==============================] - 38s 2ms/sample - loss: 0.0631 - accuracy: 0.9791 - val_loss: 0.5424 - val_accuracy: 0.8293

history gives us the summary of all the accuracies and losses calculated after each epoch

{'loss': [0.4326150054836273,
 'accuracy': [0.79028, 0.9112, 0.95052, 0.968, 0.97912],
 'val_loss': [0.34095237206459045,
 'val_accuracy': [0.85132, 0.84876, 0.82536, 0.83152, 0.82928]}
def plot_learningCurve(history, epochs):
  # Plot training & validation accuracy values
  epoch_range = range(1, epochs+1)
  plt.plot(epoch_range, history.history['accuracy'])
  plt.plot(epoch_range, history.history['val_accuracy'])
  plt.title('Model accuracy')
  plt.legend(['Train', 'Val'], loc='upper left')

  # Plot training & validation loss values
  plt.plot(epoch_range, history.history['loss'])
  plt.plot(epoch_range, history.history['val_loss'])
  plt.title('Model loss')
  plt.legend(['Train', 'Val'], loc='upper left')
plot_learningCurve(history, 5)

We can observe that the model is overfitting the training data. Overfitting happens when a model learns the detail and noise in the training data to the extent that it negatively impacts the performance of the model on new data. This means that the noise or random fluctuations in the training data is picked up and learned as concepts by the model. The problem is that these concepts do not apply to new data and negatively impact the models ability to generalize. Hence we are getting good accuracy on the training data but a lower accuracy on the test data. Dropout Layers can be an easy and effective way to prevent overfitting in your models. A dropout layer randomly drops some of the connections between layers.