Word Embedding and NLP with TF2.0 and Keras on Twitter Sentiment Data

Published by Aarya on

Word Embedding and Sentiment Analysis

What is Word Embedding?

Natural Language Processing(NLP) refers to computer systems designed to understand human language. Human language, like English or Hindi consists of words and sentences, and NLP attempts to extract information from these sentences.

Machine learning and deep learning algorithms only take numeric input so how do we convert text to numbers?

A word embedding is a learned representation for text where words that have the same meaning have a similar representation. Embeddings translate large sparse vectors into a lower-dimensional space that preserves semantic relationships. Word embeddings is a technique where individual words of a domain or language are represented as real-valued vectors in a lower dimensional space. Sparse Matrix problem with BOW is solved by mapping high-dimensional data into a lower-dimensional space. Lack of meaningful relationship issue of BOW is solved by placing vectors of semantically similar items close to each other. This way words that have similar meaning have similar distances in the vector space as shown below. “king is to queen as man is to woman” encoded in the vector space as well as verb Tense and Country and their capitals are encoded in low dimensional space preserving the semantic relationships.

image.png

Dataset

https://www.kaggle.com/kazanova/sentiment140/data#

This is the sentiment140 dataset. It contains 1,600,000 tweets extracted using the twitter api.

We are going to use 4000 tweets for training our model. The tweets have been annotated (0 = negative, 1 = positive) and they can be used to detect sentiment.

You can download the modified dataset from here.

Watch Full Video:

Here we are importing the necessary libraries.

  • pandas is used to read the dataset.
  • numpy is used to perform basic array operations.
  • Tokenizer is used to split the text into tokens.
  • pad_sequences is used to pad the data if necessary.
  • train_test_split from sklearn is used split the data into training and testing dataset.
  • The other components are imported to build the neural network.
from tensorflow.keras.preprocessing.text import Tokenizer
from tensorflow.keras.preprocessing.sequence import pad_sequences
from tensorflow.keras.models import Sequential
from tensorflow.keras.layers import Dense,Flatten,Embedding,Activation, Dropout
from tensorflow.keras.layers import Conv1D, MaxPooling1D, GlobalMaxPooling1D 
import numpy as np
from numpy import array
import pandas as pd
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split

read_csv is used to load the data into the dataframe. data.head() can be used to see the first 5 rows of the dataset.

df = pd.read_csv('twitter4000.csv')
df.head()
twittssentiment
0is bored and wants to watch a movie any sugge…0
1back in miami. waiting to unboard ship0
2@misskpey awwww dnt dis brng bak memoriessss, …0
3ughhh i am so tired blahhhhhhhhh0
4@mandagoforth me bad! It’s funny though. Zacha…0

Now we will see the distribution of sentiment in out dataset. The value_counts() function is used to get a Series containing counts of unique values. In df there are 2000 positive sentiment reviews and 2000 negative reviews.

df['sentiment'].value_counts()
1    2000
0    2000
Name: sentiment, dtype: int64

Now we will get the text data i.e. the tweets in the form of a list.

text = df['twitts'].tolist()
text[:10]
['is bored and wants to watch a movie  any suggestions?',
 'back in miami.  waiting to unboard ship ',
 "@misskpey awwww dnt dis brng bak memoriessss,  I thnk I'm sad. LoL",
 'ughhh i am so tired  blahhhhhhhhh',
 "@mandagoforth me bad! It's funny though. Zachary Quinto is only there for a few though.  & to reply just put the @ symbol before the name!",
 "brr, i'm so cold. at the moment doing my assignment on Huntington's Disease, which is really depressing ",
 "@kevinmarquis haha yep but i really need to sleep, i feel like crap lol cant sleep when he's away  god i'm pathetic!",
 "eating some ice-cream while I try to see @peterfacinelli's followers numbre raise...not working sadly ",
 '@phatty84 just hella bored at work  lol',
 'Food poisoning blowssss ']

We will get the labels in y.

y = df['sentiment']

Now we will use the class Tokenizer() to convert the data from text to numbers. This class allows to vectorize a text corpus, by turning each text into either a sequence of integers (each integer being the index of a token in a dictionary) or into a vector where the coefficient for each token could be binary, based on word count, based on tf-idf.

token = Tokenizer()
token.fit_on_texts(text)
token
<keras_preprocessing.text.Tokenizer at 0x1dfb8bae6a0>

word_indexis index -> word dictionary so every word gets a unique integer value. It starts from 0 so we will add 1 to get the vocab_sizevocab_size is the total number of unique words in our dataset.

vocab_size = len(token.word_index) + 1
vocab_size
10135

index_word is index -> word dictionary so every word gets a unique integer value. We can see the first 100 key value pairs of the dictionary.

import itertools 
print(dict(itertools.islice(token.index_word.items(), 100)))
{1: 'i', 2: 'to', 3: 'the', 4: 'a', 5: 'my', 6: 'and', 7: 'you', 8: 'is', 9: 'it', 10: 'in', 11: 'for', 12: 'of', 13: 'me', 14: 'on', 15: 'so', 16: 'that', 17: "i'm", 18: 'have', 19: 'at', 20: 'but', 21: 'just', 22: 'was', 23: 'with', 24: 'not', 25: 'be', 26: 'this', 27: 'day', 28: 'up', 29: 'now', 30: 'good', 31: 'all', 32: 'get', 33: 'out', 34: 'go', 35: 'no', 36: 'http', 37: 'today', 38: 'like', 39: 'are', 40: 'love', 41: 'your', 42: 'quot', 43: 'too', 44: 'lol', 45: 'work', 46: 'got', 47: "it's", 48: 'amp', 49: 'do', 50: 'com', 51: 'u', 52: 'back', 53: 'going', 54: 'what', 55: 'time', 56: 'from', 57: 'had', 58: 'will', 59: 'know', 60: 'about', 61: 'im', 62: 'am', 63: "don't", 64: 'can', 65: 'one', 66: 'really', 67: "can't", 68: 'we', 69: 'oh', 70: 'well', 71: 'still', 72: '2', 73: 'some', 74: 'its', 75: 'miss', 76: 'want', 77: 'see', 78: 'when', 79: 'home', 80: 'think', 81: 'an', 82: 'as', 83: 'if', 84: 'night', 85: 'need', 86: 'again', 87: 'new', 88: 'there', 89: 'morning', 90: 'here', 91: 'how', 92: 'her', 93: 'much', 94: 'thanks', 95: 'or', 96: 'they', 97: '3', 98: 'last', 99: 'off', 100: 'more'}

If we consider x = 'i to the a and' to be our text, then using token it will be encoded as shown below.

x = ['i to the a and']
token.texts_to_sequences(x)
[[1, 2, 3, 4, 6]]

Now we will encode text which contains all the tweets.

encoded_text = token.texts_to_sequences(text)
print(encoded_text[:30])
[[8, 304, 6, 345, 2, 191, 4, 236, 254, 3079], [52, 10, 1019, 206, 2, 3080, 3081], [3082, 1197, 668, 1955, 3083, 1956, 3084, 1, 3085, 17, 115, 44], [1957, 1, 62, 15, 192, 3086], [3087, 13, 113, 47, 328, 136, 3088, 3089, 8, 101, 88, 11, 4, 285, 136, 48, 2, 448, 21, 277, 3, 3090, 218, 3, 449], [3091, 17, 15, 315, 19, 3, 892, 164, 5, 1459, 14, 3092, 3093, 386, 8, 66, 1460], [3094, 110, 366, 20, 1, 66, 85, 2, 108, 1, 117, 38, 536, 44, 182, 108, 78, 346, 207, 305, 17, 3095], [450, 73, 537, 569, 295, 1, 316, 2, 77, 3096, 367, 3097, 1461, 24, 187, 893], [3098, 21, 1958, 304, 19, 45, 44], [409, 3099, 3100], [3101, 132, 609, 79, 3, 193, 368, 17, 131, 3, 158, 199], [3102, 127, 1, 139, 226, 2, 1020, 9, 29, 1, 222, 74, 55, 2, 3103, 16, 3104], [67, 894, 423], [1959, 119, 52, 56, 211, 159, 387, 669, 48, 68, 255, 1462, 3, 3105, 71, 570, 5, 1959, 329], [1960, 3106, 3107, 46, 3108, 3109], [3110, 1463, 70, 19, 227, 17, 28, 2], [3111, 1, 245, 212, 1961, 51, 72, 36, 146, 246, 3112, 1, 538, 20, 74, 507, 1962, 410, 1, 1198, 219, 787], [3113, 69, 1, 1021, 5, 3114, 33, 2, 1199, 451, 263, 12, 9, 388, 1, 143, 76, 2, 316, 1464, 73, 159, 1465], [3115, 3116, 31, 12, 39, 3117, 9, 20, 96, 39, 24, 1466, 3118, 1200, 386, 507, 369, 15, 68, 571, 32, 2, 1022, 2, 51], [3119, 165, 88, 35, 64, 49, 1963, 6, 24, 52, 10, 572, 306, 1467, 176, 152, 75, 7], [3120, 15, 788, 78, 9, 610, 95, 91, 20, 1, 3121, 789, 370, 7, 91, 39, 7, 91, 18, 7, 102], [54, 8, 28, 23, 5, 3122], [52, 3123, 86, 37, 611, 15, 473, 452, 82, 1201, 101, 719, 153, 1468, 790, 11, 188, 3124], [3125, 69, 1, 670, 83, 3, 1964, 14, 3, 1469, 8, 720, 2, 34], [3126, 7, 347, 42, 3127, 11, 573, 42, 1, 22, 1965, 1966], [3128, 87, 671, 8, 101, 3129, 153, 207, 256, 16, 8, 1023], [1470, 3, 3130, 38, 35, 223], [539, 1, 18, 4, 389, 10, 5, 1967, 43], [1, 612, 2, 18, 255, 5, 1024, 1471], [52, 56, 3, 424, 3131, 102, 4, 148, 55, 508, 1, 98, 57, 3132, 3133, 3134, 3135, 227, 3136, 8, 14, 92, 116, 2, 791, 13]]

We can see that the length of each tweet is different. The length of all encoded tweets must be same before feeding them to the neural network. Hence we are using pad_sequences which pads zeros to reviews with length less than 120.

max_length = 120
X = pad_sequences(encoded_text, maxlen=max_length, padding='post')
print(X)
[[    8   304     6 ...     0     0     0]
 [   52    10  1019 ...     0     0     0]
 [ 3082  1197   668 ...     0     0     0]
 ...
 [ 1033    21  1021 ...     0     0     0]
 [10134   134     7 ...     0     0     0]
 [   94    11   226 ...     0     0     0]]

Now we can see that we have 4000 tweets all having the same length of 120.

X.shape
(4000, 120)

Here we are dividing the data into training data and test data using train_test_split() from sklearn which we have already imported. We are going to use 80% of the data for training the model and 20% of the data for testing. random_state controls the shuffling applied to the data before applying the split. stratify = y splits the data in a stratified fashion, using y as the class labels.

X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, random_state = 42, test_size = 0.2, stratify = y)

Sequential() model is appropriate for a plain stack of layers where each layer has exactly one input tensor and one output tensor.

The Embedding() layer is initialized with random weights and will learn an embedding for all of the words in the training dataset. It requires 3 arguments:

  • input_dim: This is the size of the vocabulary in the text data which is 10135 in our case.
  • output_dim: This is the size of the vector space in which words will be embedded. It defines the size of the output vectors from this layer for each word. We have set it to 300.
  • input_length: Length of input sequences, when it is constant. In our case it is 120.

Conv1D() is a 1D Convolution Layer, this layer is very effective for deriving features from a fixed-length segment of the overall dataset, where it is not so important where the feature is located in the segment. In the Conv1D() layer we are learning a total of 64 filters with size of convolutional window as 8. We will be using ReLu activation function. The rectified linear activation function or ReLU for short is a piecewise linear function that will output the input directly if it is positive, otherwise, it will output zero.

relu.png

MaxPool1D() downsamples the input representation by taking the maximum value over the window defined by pool_size which is 2 in case of this neural network.

Dropout() is used to randomly set the outgoing edges of hidden units to 0 at each update of the training phase. The value passed in dropout specifies the probability at which outputs of the layer are dropped out.

GlobalMaxPooling1D() downsamples the input representation by taking the maximum value over the time dimension.

Dense() is the regular deeply connected neural network layer. The output layer is a dense layer with 1 neuron because we are predicting a single value. Sigmoid function is used because it exists between (0 to 1) and this facilitates us to predict a binary input.

vec_size = 300

model = Sequential()
model.add(Embedding(vocab_size, vec_size, input_length=max_length))

model.add(Conv1D(64, 8, activation = 'relu'))
model.add(MaxPooling1D(2))
model.add(Dropout(0.2))

model.add(Dense(32, activation='relu'))
model.add(Dropout(0.5))

model.add(Dense(16, activation='relu'))

model.add(GlobalMaxPooling1D())

model.add(Dense(1, activation='sigmoid'))

Here we are compiling the model and fitting it to the training data. We will use 5 epochs to train the model. An epoch is an iteration over the entire data provided. validation_data is the data on which to evaluate the loss and any model metrics at the end of each epoch. The model will not be trained on this data. As metrics = ['accuracy'] the model will be evaluated based on the accuracy.

model.compile(optimizer='adam', loss = 'binary_crossentropy', metrics = ['accuracy'])
%%time
model.fit(X_train, y_train, epochs = 5, validation_data = (X_test, y_test))
Train on 3200 samples, validate on 800 samples
Epoch 1/5
3200/3200 [==============================] - 8s 2ms/sample - loss: 0.6937 - acc: 0.4919 - val_loss: 0.6870 - val_acc: 0.5188
Epoch 2/5
3200/3200 [==============================] - 6s 2ms/sample - loss: 0.6588 - acc: 0.6212 - val_loss: 0.6328 - val_acc: 0.6425
Epoch 3/5
3200/3200 [==============================] - 5s 2ms/sample - loss: 0.5100 - acc: 0.7625 - val_loss: 0.6255 - val_acc: 0.6787
Epoch 4/5
3200/3200 [==============================] - 6s 2ms/sample - loss: 0.3110 - acc: 0.8763 - val_loss: 0.7330 - val_acc: 0.6925
Epoch 5/5
3200/3200 [==============================] - 6s 2ms/sample - loss: 0.1663 - acc: 0.9394 - val_loss: 0.7949 - val_acc: 0.6775
Wall time: 33.8 s

Now we will test the model by predicting sentiments of unseen tweets. We will use the get_encoded() to pre-process the reviews in the same way as training data. We can predict the class for new data instances using our finalized classification model in Keras using the predict_classes() function.

def get_encoded(x):
    x = token.texts_to_sequences(x)
    x = pad_sequences(x, maxlen=max_length, padding = 'post')
    return x

x = ['worst services. will not come again']
model.predict_classes(get_encoded(x))
array([[0]])
x = ['thank you for watching']
model.predict_classes(get_encoded(x))
array([[1]])

We can increase the accuracy of the model by training the model on the entire dataset of 1,600,000 tweets. We can even use more pre-processing techniques like checking for spelling mistakes, repeated letters, etc.


Aarya

Hi, I am Aarya Tadvalkar! Currently, I am pursuing Computer Engineering. I have a keen interest in Machine Learning and Data Science. I am always enthusiastic about learning new things and expanding my knowledge!

Subscribe
Notify of
guest
0 Comments
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments
0
Would love your thoughts, please comment.x
()
x